Zydeco and I are so fortunate to have Jaime Rosier of Goldilocks and the Hound Hikers (http://www.houndhikers.org/) on the socialization team. Today Zydeco had a blast meeting Skylar, a little firecracker of a girl that taught him some really nice lessons today about how dogs play…. Ohhh, it was lovely to see Zydeco finally getting the invite from a more playful dog for a change since none of the other dogs in his life are interested in this sort of thing, and honestly, other than some attempts at mounting (which Skylar said a very clear and appropriate no to), he really was pretty darn polite I have to say. He has some good skills. I particularly like the tumble, roll, I am so cute when I’m upside down aren’t I? technique! 🙂
Lesson #1: You don’t just jump into bed with a girl. You have to charm her for awhile, roll around a little, and look really really cute first. Then, if you are really lucky, she might play with you.
Lesson #2: The grownup dog initiates the play, and stops the play when she is done. This is non negotiable.
Lesson #3: Some girls play rough–but as long as we remember the “time out” rule, it’s all in good fun.
Lesson #4 When done playing, it is polite to offer a lady a drink from your pool and go sniff around the yard a bit.
Lesson #5: NO MOUNTING ever! Not acceptable, not allowed, no way, no how. (Skylar VO: “You are much to young for me anyway, young man! Mind your manners please! “:)
Once again, it has been an eventful week with the Z-man. My goal since Monday was was to prepare him for a park trip which we successfully took yesterday. To be honest I actually needed to get him out of the house in order to clear away the ex-pens, and so our housekeeper could arrive without a massive bark fest, and actually get some cleaning done. 🙂
In a valiant attempt to walk my own talk, I began thinking about this park trip six days beforehand. At the start of each training session with him in the kitchen, on the back patio, in the back yard, and then in the front yard, I went through my puppy foundation skills check list, working especially hard on: calm when harness and leash are put on, auto-eye contact, name response, joyful recalls, the “Let’s go!” cue, and of course, my ever-favorite, all-important, Relax on a Mat. For each of these exercises I used his all-time highest-value food and toy rewards to super-charge his emotional responsiveness to all cues, as well as to further cement his growing default habit of remaining connected to me. Our boy is a fast study, and for a so called “drivey” breed, he certainly blew that stereotype out of the water, acing and then generalizing Relax on a Mat just about as quickly as any dog I have ever worked with.
The whole point of all the effort is that once strong enough, these foundation behaviors will hopefully carry such a ginormous whallop of a reinforcement history behind them that Zydeco will be able to remain responsive even in increasingly more challenging situations. One of the metaphors I like best for training with positive reinforcement is “charging a battery.” Each successful repetition of cue–>behavior–>click–>YAY! (treat, toy, opportunity to do something fun, etc) actually sets the neural pathways in the brain for fast-track, consequence-based, pattern-learning in the future. This is why I truly believe that if one has to choose, it is far more beneficial to invest 30 minutes a day in training games at home–particularly with a youngster — than 30 minutes a day struggling to walk an untrained dog around the block.
Okay. Wish me luck. I’m attempting something usually impossible for me: a post in less than an hour. Lucky for me, a get to piggyback most of my thoughts on this excellent article by Laura VanArendonk Baugh called “Don’t Socialize the Dog!”
So, yeah, what she said. 🙂 Laura is simply awesome. Go ahead and be sure to read the article and come back. I’ll be right here.
Okay. I work with a lot of problem dogs. During my initial evaluations at people’s homes, I meet dogs that typically spend the majority of their first few minutes in my presence either frantically jumping on me, barking their heads off, even trying to bite me. Inevitably their often embarrassed and exasperated owners will apologetically say something along the lines of: “I’m sure he was abused”…or “I don’t think he was socialized very well.” The good news is that the greater occurance of the latter statement means that the general public is starting to become more aware of the importance of early socialization…. And this is certainly a great step forward from a number of years back when standard practice was to keep puppies in isolation for the first four months of their lives. Our understanding of the developmental stages of puppy growth and how that effects socialization has grown much more sophisticated, and that’s great. But more and more often these days, even these increasingly sophisticated, and without a doubt well meaning owners have been saying things along these lines: “We just don’t understand it. We took Fluffy to puppy classes…We took him everywhere with us and let lots of different people pet him and feed treats…We took him to shopping malls, and the beach, and the farmer’s market….We let Fluffy meet every dog he saw on the street and he seemed just fine…We took him to dog parks every day, and he seemed to be having such a great time….Why is Fluffy suddenly lunging and barking at everyone like this now? We thought we did everything right.”
It is baffling, and I do feel for people. How come they can read all the right books, go to the right classes, follow the proper recipe, and still end up with a freaked out adolescent? Well, if I could boil the most challenging behavior issues down to a single root cause, I have to say it wouldn’t be lack of socialization that’s the problem, it would be this: not preparing either yourself or your dog for the challenges of socialization in the first place.
I think in our haste to get puppies out there to see the world, it really is usually sink or swim for them and for us. If the puppy has a super stable temperament, you might get away with it, but what most often happens is either puppies are overwhelmed and end up hyper-sensitized to the things you are hoping they’ll learn to like, or they get ample opportunities to practice all sorts of wild and woolly behaviors that are just not good for them in the long run, behaviors like lunging and pulling towards every dog they see, jumping on people, barking at motorcycles, going crazy when the leash gets put on…just basically equating the outside world with loosing their little puppy minds.
As I mentioned before, puppies are learning machines. Repeat pattern of get-leash-put-on—-> WHOO HOO!!! We are off to Disneyland!… Or, see a group of children approaching, or a dog coming directly down the sidewalk at you, feeling nervous, and not being able to escape because the leash is too tight enough times, and, if the puppy is of a certain sensitive temperament, that’s it. It is really really hard to undo those first impressions once they occur.
So, what do I mean by preparing the puppy for “safe” socialization?
FOUNDATION SKILLS. FOUNDATION SKILLS. FOUNDATION SKILLS.
Take a little assessment. Can your puppy do the following things? (If not, don’t even bother heading out the door).
- Leash and harness on and off with no fuss, no leash biting, no nipping hands, just quiet, calm sitting and a happy look because leash means training time, relax time, and treats.
- Relax on a mat. Does puppy know how to anchor to a safe spot and can remain there happily for up to ten minutes at a time with mild to moderate distractions in several rooms of the house and in the yard? (Want to learn how? Buy this great book, Chill Out Fido by Nan Arthur).
- Name response and eye contact. Does the puppy have a solid reinforcement history (a minimum of 1,000 treats for looking at you, responding to his name, coming when called)?
- Basic leash walking. (Does not have to be perfect heeling!) Puppy can follow you happily on a loose leash when you change direction, and is non-fussy when you ask him to move in a different direction sometimes than he wants to go.
- A pre-trained Let’s Go! U-turn Cue (particularly important for excitable or reactive puppies). This is how you get them away from startling or arousing things without struggle.
- Focus. Can puppy stay focused, and respond to his name and Let’s go! all around your front yard or driveway?
- Is puppy relaxed and calm in the house majority of the time? (Other than regular puppy goofies)? Eating well? Sleeping soundly? Playful?
- (Human skill) A good understanding on your part of puppy’s all time highest value food and toy rewards. You’ll need to take these out with you everywhere you go for the next six months at least.
- (Human skill) A healthy respect for your puppy’s ability to handle proximity to people or other dogs. At what distance can he or she be around new people or other dogs and still remain responsive to you?
- (Human skill) An understanding of stress signs. Do you really know if your puppy is actually having a good time or not? Calm is not always enough. (Want to learn more about how to identify and mitigate your dog’s stress? Read this.)
If you answer yes to these things, then great! You are ready to head out for short outings to mellow places to meet friendly people, or just watch them at a distance. Here is a nice example of what that can look like when you’ve done your homework. This is a client’s dog, Ghilly, practicing Relax on a Mat on a busy street. Note: it took six weeks of foundation work to teach her how to do this. In puppy class she lunged non-stop and screamed like a banshee, so we nixed that idea early.
And here’s another good one–also a Bridges Homeschooler puppy client:
If you answered no. My advise is, put socialization on a back burner. Go back to your kitchen. Get a nice, big baggie of really good treats and get to work. (Don’t have a clicker trainer near you to learn from? Check out Cyber Dog Online!) The clock is ticking, but if you want a puppy that can not only be polite in public, but actually feel SAFE with you in public, these foundation skills are the cornerstones you need.
Our little Zydeco is an especially reactive puppy, and his life has been a bit tumultuous to say the least. He currently gets so aroused outside of the house he attacks the leash, and tends to bark explosively at all people. Although he is just hitting four months old, and there is some urgency to get him some exposure to new things fairly quickly, I’ve opted to err on the side of caution and wait. He’s been with us for only a week. He trusts me now, and seems to understand that I am the source of pretty awesome stuff like canned cat food, deli meats, and great fuzzy toys. He has successfully met several new people here too, as well as two new dogs. He is very brave, and constantly exploring and learning. He’s had a ton of new experiences in the last week actually–but none of them outside the house. Best of all, he’s been relaxed and successful through just about all of it…and that is the point of it all anyway.
Now that he and I seem to be grooving on each other, and there is some trust there, his training has begun in earnest. My goal is to take him on a short outing next Saturday to a very quiet park, maybe early in the morning. He is a sharp cookie. His foundation skills already coming along nicely. My hope is that during our adventure he can relax, stay focused, eat lots of yummies, play, and have as much goofy fun there as he does here. I will keep ya posted!
Safety Before Obedience
When I first announced Zydeco’s impending arrival to friends on Facebook, an excited colleague asked: “So, what training tasks are you going to focus on first?”
Hmmm…Great question because it got me thinking. Puppies are exciting, each one an adorable illusion of a “blank slate” supposedly to be written on at will (he he). There is also a lot of pressure to get on the ball and Get Things Right right away with puppies, because they grow darned fast and can slip into challenging habits so quickly. I also know that my five weeks with the Z-man are going to go by really fast. But when you’ve been living with a mostly mellow, eager to please, sweet-natured adult dog, a dog long past her puppy years like I have, it is easy to forget just how the heck all that great training happened in the first place. Quite frankly, apart from her dog issues, Zoë was a strangely easy puppy. No separation distress. No destructive chewing. Hardly any barking. Sweet and gentle with all humans. Quickly bonded to us. She was so easy and low energy in fact that I finally decided there must be something wrong with her. After some veterinary advocacy on my part, at last it was discovered that the reason she was so mellow was in part due to an under-active thyroid. But the point is this: I am first in line to extoll clients right and left about the importance of good management and how important it is to do this and to do that full time for their puppies right away ….But true confessions, I myself have never really had to work that hard with my own puppy–at least not with regards to regular puppy stuff anyway. So, now with Zydeco in the house, it is really my turn to walk the talk, because this little boy is a whole nuther kettle of fish entirely.
The first day I met Mr. Z, watching my movements carefully as he hid between my friend’s legs, barking fiercely, then lunging forward to snatch at my treat pouch, I knew he was the puppy for whom all the puppy (and reactive dog books) have been written. Nipping, jumping, mouthing, crying, barking, chewing, boundless playfulness, drive, pestering, pouncing, harassing other dogs, difficulty taking no for an answer, difficulty settling down, howling in his crate when left alone–if it is a behavior typical youngsters are supposed to do, our boy would certainly be one do it with five times the zeal, and ten times the tenacity. So, anyway, long story short, amid all the preparations this past week, I’ve been taking the FB question pretty seriously actually. What should my first priorities with the Z-man be anyway? Sit? Stay? Come? Doggie Zen? Leave-it? No biting!? Go to crate? Name Game? Leash walking? Targeting? 101 Things With a Box?….Then what about the plethora of different approaches? Which will be the right fit for him? Emma Parson’s Click to Calm, Leslie McDevitt’s Control Unleashed: The Puppy Program, Grisha Stewart’s Give a Puppy a Choice…and what about Sue Ailsby’s Training Levels which I’ve always wanted to try, or Ken and Debbie Martin’s fabulous Puppy Start Right book? On the plus side, it is truly great how many excellent, force-free approaches there are available to dog and puppy owners nowadays. The down side, however, is it can be almost paralyzing–even for a professional trainer–to know where to start! But while I’ve been contemplating my options, one phrase just keeps popping into my mind like the refrain of a song that you can’t stop humming, a statement I learned from my good friend, mentor, and amazing trainer, Nan Arthur: SAFETY BEFORE OBEDIENCE
As I summarized in my first, introductory post, What are Z-dogs?, Zydeco is a certainly a brave boy, but he has had a rough start in life. Trusting humans, particularly men, is pretty shaky for him at times. Case in point, one night a few weeks back my friend told me Zydeco was so frightened by the surprise arrival of a handyman, he backed himself under a bench, barking frantically, and then defecated. So, although he may look like a little punk sometimes, with hair bristling down his back, his tail up, mouth puckered, all swagger and bravado, his surprisingly big dog voice ringing in our ears, there’s real fear underneath. Bringing a puppy like this into a whole new living situation, with new people, and into a home shared by an equally scared, and sometimes scary, anti-social adult dog is not a thing that can or should ever be done without great mindfulness. I knew that even with all my experience as a trainer, this was not a situation where I could even remotely get away with playing it by ear and hoping for the best. The moment I committed to caring for Zydeco, I also then became fully committed to doing whatever it took to ensure that both Z-dogs (and our ever patient housemate-dog Maya too) would not only be safe living together, but they would, to the best of my abilities, also hopefully be able to feel safe under the same roof most of the time as well.
The next question to ask then is this: what does safety actually mean in dog terms?
Sometimes it is easier to define something by first looking at its opposite. Things that definitely make dogs feel unsafe are: direct invasions on personal space, sudden environmental changes, strange or startling noises (and smells), changes in routine, and of course, any or all perceived invasions of territory, threats to resources, or threats of bodily harm, and I knew that by bringing the puppy into our home I’d be subjecting Zoë to most of these types of triggering stimuli all at once. As for the puppy, he was going to have to navigate a new routine, new people, new yard, new noises, new dogs, new smells–all kinds of stuff. When envisioning the management logistics, my main goal was to minimize the impact of these stressors as much as possible, and to immediately begin building positive associations right from the get go. It was also crucial to have multiple barriers between dogs at all times, as well as several levels of safety protocols in place ahead of time to ensure that the two of them would never get a chance to meet face to face until I was certain they were ready. Leaving one or the other of them in a crate or in a back room while the other one ran loose simply wasn’t going to cut it. I didn’t even want them touching noses through bars because I knew that the absolute worst scenario of all would be a set up where one dog encroached upon the other in a condensed territory like a crate, plus feeling trapped at the same time. Yikes! I have always fought like a momma bear for my Zoë’s comfort as best I could. But above all, the last thing I wanted was for Zydeco to have so many volatile encounters with Zoë, he became even more reactive to dogs as a result.
So what does this level of basic management for safety in a reactive dog household look like in human terms?
In a word: inconvenience. Number one, we humans just had to bite the bullet and temporarily give up a huge amount of living space to accommodate the necessary buffer zones between dogs, as well as allow for enough space for puppy romping. Luckily our house is big enough that even with doubled up ex-pens dividing living room from kitchen, puppy toys everywhere, and all the extra crates and dog beds, we have managed to fit it all in with minimal crunch. We are also lucky that front and back yards are both fully fenced but separate from each other. After the first day, I also had to add in visual screens for Zoë’s sake by covering the ex-pen barriers with blankets. Basically it looks like Fort Knox around here right now, and yeah, it’s a drag having to maze through multiple gates to get from living room to kitchen, particularly when I keep forgetting my phone all the way out of reach on one side or the other, or someone knocks at the door, but honestly, sitting here right now, perched in my temporary downstairs kitchen office (set up specifically to be near the puppy), surrounded by 1/4 gage wire fences covered with blankets, a contented, snoring puppy at my feet, a peaceful, snoring Pit bull in her crate just a few feet away on her side, whewee! I have to say, heck yeah, it is worth it. The ex-pens let us all relax and learn to co-exist more gradually. They keep puppy out of trouble and ensure the older dogs get their space. Whoever you are that invented ex-pens, I’d like to kiss you right now! 🙂
So, what are some practical things that do help a dog feel safe? Oh, yes, let me count the ways.
- A predictable routine–basic needs for good nutrition, clean water, undisturbed 12-14 hours of sleep, and potty breaks will be met without fail.
- A safe space to retreat to–either a cozy crate, or favorite couch, bed, quiet room, or sunny spot
- Well-practiced, pre-trained rituals in place that soothe instead of amp the dog up–e.g. go to crate when the doorbell rings, relax on a mat before walks, eye contact before released to a toy, etc.
- Safe outcomes–no force, fear, or threat of pain or discomfort in relation to people–EVER. No exceptions.
- Good associations the dog can predict and count on–especially when startling things happen, when training time begins, when the dog’s name is called, when an unpleasant husbandry procedure has to happen, when a new person appears in the doorway, etc.
- Complete absence of all deliberate coercion, discipline, or pressure—e.g. letting dogs warm to new people in their own time, not getting hung up on power struggles with the dog, no verbal or physical corrections when dog makes a mistake, no sweating the “small stuff” such as house-soiling accidents, barking, digging, chewing, stealing food–in other words–what dogs do.
- Clear and dependable patterns of reinforcement. If a dog expects a paycheck for, say, going to his mat instead of jumping on a guest, or coming when called away from a squirrel or another dog, it is important to continue to reward those good choices throughout the dog’s lifetime.
- Especially for puppies…the undivided attention of a human being almost 24/7 for the first several months (except when practicing being alone for short periods), a sleeping place close to family, plenty of things to chew, interesting things and fun places to explore, safe people and dogs to meet, or maybe just look at from a far, puzzles to figure out, lots of low-stimulation / downtime for growing, an emotionally safe space to learn, and lots and lots and lots of reinforcement for every little thing done right.
Zydeco has been with us for three days now. I had to take most of the week off. We had to rearrange our entire household into maze land. My husband and I both have lost a fair amount of sleep. We’ve given up all semblance of having an orderly household. Most nights I’ve been much too tired to cook, so we’ve begun to resort to pizza delivery and take out. Zoë has needed some extra support (which I’ll discuss later), but she’s figuring it out. Zydeco I’m proud to say is BLOSSOMING! He is playful, responsive, sweet, super smart, a little evil–all a puppy should be.
Stay tuned for part two! Safety Before Socialization
This blog is mostly dedicated to two specific Z-dogs in my life: my own heart-dog, Zoë, and a fiesty little tike named Zydeco that we have welcomed into our home for the next five weeks. Integrating a reactive puppy into a reactive dog household is no easy feat. As a professional trainer with two full grown and pretty well-trained dogs of my own, it’s been awhile since I’ve had to actually “walk the talk” when it comes to full puppy management; add in the complexity of our Zoë’s total lack of tolerance for most dogs besides her housemate Maya, and the management challenges increase ten-fold. I’m hoping that by documenting the daily ins and outs of all we learn during Zydeco’s stay, I will be able to enrich the journey of dogs and their humans everywhere.
As one of my training idols, Kay Laurence, once said: “all dogs are reactive dogs.” Similarly, a Z-dog could be any dog. Z-dogs are the master teachers among us. They are the ones giving out hard won doctorate degrees in being better human beings. Not sure if I’ll ever really get that thesis turned in on time, but after seven life-changing years with Zoë, and just a few eventful days with Zydeco, I definitely feel I am working my way through the practicum hours necessary for a combined Ph.D. in patience, problem solving, and soul-stretching for sure.
Meet Zydeco the Brave, a feisty, extremely lovable, crazy-smart, four-month-old German Shepherd-mix. He was found running in the street by my good friend’s daughter-in-law, starving, terrified, barking at every person he saw. In just a few short weeks my friend and her family have done an amazing job restoring this little boy to health and beginning the process of remedial puppy-hood. I have offered to take him him while my friend is traveling in the hopes of giving Zydeco the best possible chance at overcoming some of his early life-challenges and behavioral habits. Until now, Zydeco has clearly not been dealt an easy hand. For a dog so young, his survival strategies so far have included fierce, defensive, knee-jerk barking at strangers, stealing and resource guarding food, and intense, oddly mature behaviors around other dogs such as persistent mounting and escalations when told to buzz off by the adults instead of more developmentally typical, “Oops! Sorry I am just a puppy!” appeasement responses. However, in just a few short weeks he has already accomplished a lot, taking a leap of faith with humans again, bravely adapting himself into not just one, but now two different households. He is not an easy boy, but quickly wins the hearts of all who earn his trust. While he is here, I am certain he will have more to teach us than we have to teach him.
This is Zoë. Like Zydeco, she also was found wandering the streets at four months of age. For the past 7 years she has been my constant companion and a life-changing learning partner. Zoë is the reason I became a professional dog trainer in the first place. Her survival strategies when she first came to us were a little different than Zydeco’s. Her go-to behavior with people and most overwhelming situations was usually frantic appeasement to the point of grovelling, and if that didn’t work to relieve the social pressure, she mostly tended to shut down. Sometimes it got so extreme, she would look catatonic. With most strange dogs, however, she slipped quickly into a kind of Tasmanian-devil whirlwind, defensive mode. After years of hard work on both our parts, she has certainly come a long way, but she has never fully been able to accept other new dogs in her personal space to this day. A few years ago I gave up on my dream of “fixing” Zoë’s dog aggression and instead decided to focus on seeing to it that she has the happiest, most enriched life possible. Watching her blossom from shy, easily-stressed Wallflower into the delightful girl she is today has been an unfolding joy. Although Zydeco is the inspiration for this blog, and is a ridiculously endearing and exciting puppy, Zoë will forever be my heart dog; and I fully realize that asking her to accept this interloper into her inner sanctum–even temporarily– and to share me with him is a lot to ask.